• A ULLAH Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • A BIBI Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • I ULLAH Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • REZ KAYANI Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • M ASIM Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • N MUNAWAR Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • M AMJAD Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • M SIRAJ Department of health and biological sciences, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • M GOHAR Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
  • MA KHAN Division of Life Science, Center for Cancer Research and State Key Lab for Molecular Neuroscience, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Peninsula 999077, Hong Kong



HCV, Inflammation, Liver Cirrhosis, Liver carcinoma, Liver transplant, risk factors



Liver cirrhosis is a medical condition characterized by atrophy, fibrosis and physiological malfunctioning of the liver. This ailment may or may not be associated with liver carcinoma, which can be diagnosed via alphafetoprotein (AFP) blood test. The liver is a multi-tasking organ responsible for enzyme synthesis and toxin degradation; the patient with cirrhosis falls prone to various health issues such as jaundice, malaise, nausea, fatigue, swellings, loss of appetite, accumulation of fluid in the abdominal spaces, weight loss etc. This hepatic pathology, in later stages, is fatal. This disease leads to the annual mortality of 4000 lives in the UK and is the 12th major life-threatening disease in the USA. Chronic infection with HCV (hepatitis C virus), HBV (hepatitis B virus), and alcohol consumption are major factors of liver cirrhosis. Due to its slower progression (as it develops over months), liver cirrhosis can be detected earlier via diagnostic tools like CT (Computed Tomography) scan, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan, liver biopsy etc. Liver cirrhosis is the major reason for liver transplants around the world. It is more common in males than females and is prevalent in developing countries. Pakistan has an enormous burden of liver cirrhosis. This article briefly discusses the recent developments in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and frequency of liver cirrhosis in the Pakistani population.


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How to Cite

ULLAH, A., BIBI, A., ULLAH, I., KAYANI, R., ASIM, M., MUNAWAR, N., AMJAD, M., SIRAJ, M., GOHAR, M., & KHAN, M. (2024). AN OVERVIEW OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS AND LIVER CIRRHOSIS IN PAKISTAN. Bulletin of Biological and Allied Sciences Research, 2024(1), 64.

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