• AU REHMAN Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, P.O BOX. 54590, Lahore, Pakistan
  • A ABBAS Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, P.O BOX. 54590, Lahore, Pakistan
  • A ARSHAD Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad P.O BOX, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • GM RAZA Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad P.O BOX, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • M UMAR Department of Soil Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad P.O BOX, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • MS BUKHARI Agricultural Research Station Bahawalpur, P.O BOX, 63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan



Genomic Prediction, GWAS, PCR, CRISPER/Cas9, Gene Expression


Recent advances in genome sequencing of essential crop plants allow genotype and phenotype data integration in crop development. Advanced statistical methods identified quantitative trait genes. Genomic prediction has been used successfully in breeding animals and is now also used in breeding plants. Biometric statistics, genome-wide markers, and phenotyping enhance gene discovery. This makes biotechnology agricultural plant solutions possible. Improved fertilizer efficiency requires precise plant phenotyping in multiple habitats and seasons, which was previously expensive. DNA sequencing, genetic engineering, and PCR-based marker-assisted selection have made it cheaper. New methods like next-generation sequencing can target climate-responsive crop development. It examines Oryza sativa L. flower opening and closing molecularly and hybrid breeding success in diverse plant types. It discusses CRISPR/Cas9 for crop trait improvement and metabolic studies for Triticum aestivum L. quality group determination. Genetic analysis should use species-specific techniques, according to the study. A Zea mays L. callus induction and growth study examined how media and growth conditions affect callus development. Another drought-stressed Triticum aestivum L. cultivar gene expression study suggests employing RNA editing to respond to environmental stress. PCR-based markers have helped scientists find important genes in landraces that have changed to survive harsh farming conditions, giving them targets for crop growth.


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