• MN KHALID Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • U HASSAN Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • M HANZALA Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • I AMJAD Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • A HASSAN Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan



hybrid cotton, germplasm, mechanization, breeding tools


Pakistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton producer. It is grown largely for fibre, and its oil is used as a vegetable oil and contributes significantly to the local oil industry. Cottonseed oil meets 18.1% of Pakistan's edible oil needs. In 2030, there will be 5.5 million tonnes of total demand for this purpose, with 2 million tonnes of local supply. Bt cotton, which was introduced in 2010 to remove three harmful lepidopteran insects, currently accounts for more than 90% of all cotton grown in Pakistan. Pakistan offers a lot of potential for organic cotton cultivation, particularly in unconventional cotton-growing locations with low insect burdens. Climate change-induced high temperatures and water scarcity are a big worry because contemporary agriculture is practiced in areas that already experience very high temperatures. Phenotypic selection in breeding is ineffective in creating stress-tolerant cotton. Marker-assisted selection technologies have considerably increased the effectiveness of traditional breeding. Modern breeding techniques contributed to the development of novel cotton breeding strategies. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9 and genome editing can establish a good foundation for improving resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses.


Abbas, S. (2020). Climate change and cotton production: an empirical investigation of Pakistan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27, 29580-29588. DOI:

Abdelhameed, R. M., & Emam, H. E. (2022). Modulation of metal organic framework hybrid cotton for efficient sweeping of dyes and pesticides from wastewater. Sustainable Materials and Technologies 31, e00366. DOI:

Ali, M. A., Farooq, J., Batool, A., Zahoor, A., Azeem, F., Mahmood, A., & Jabran, K. (2019). Cotton production in Pakistan. Cotton Production, 249-276. DOI:

Arshad, A., Raza, M. A., Zhang, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, X., Ahmed, M., & Habib-ur-Rehman, M. (2021). Impact of climate warming on cotton growth and yields in China and Pakistan: A regional perspective. Agriculture 11, 97. DOI:

Aslam, M. (2016). Agricultural productivity current scenario, constraints and future prospects in Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 32, 289-303. DOI:

Aslam, M., Sajjad, M., Yousaf, M., Hussain, S., Shah, S., Bhatti, M., Hussain, S., Ghani, A., Ibrar, I., Akram, M., Razaq, A., Mehboob, A., Akhtar, S., Zafar, A., Akhtar, I., & Shah, S. (2022). Impact of heat stress on agro-morphometric and fiberrelated traits in indigenous upland cotton genotypes under semi-arid conditions. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2022(1). DOI:

Bakhsh, K., Ahmad, N., Tabasum, S., Hassan, S., & Hassan, I. (2017). Health hazards and adoption of personal protective equipment during cotton harvesting in Pakistan. Science of the Total Environment 598, 1058-1064. DOI:

Bakhsh, K., Akram, W., Jahanzeb, A., & Khan, M. (2016). Estimating productivity of Bt cotton and its impact on pesticide use in Punjab (Pakistan). Pakistan Economic and Social Review 54, 15-24.

Chaudhry, U. F., Khalid, M. N., Aziz, S., Amjad, I., Khalid, A., Noor, H., & Sajid, H. B. (2022). International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences. Int J Agri Biosci 11, 59-69.

Farooq, J., Mahmood, K., Rehman, A. U., Javaid, M. I., Petrescu-Mag, V., & Nawaz, B. (2015). High temperature stress in cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Extreme Life, Biospeology & Astrobiology 7.

Fatima, A., Saeed, A., Ullah, M., Shah, S., Ijaz, M., Anwar, M., Khaliq, A., Chohan, S., Khalid, M., Khan, A., & Amjad, I. (2022a). Estimation of gene action for the selection of superior parents and their cross combinations for yield and fiber associated attributes in american cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2022(1). DOI:

Fatima, A., Saeed, A., Khalid, M., Imam, M., Rafique, M., Sharif, M., Iqbal, N., Tipu, A., & Amjad, I. (2022b). Genetic studies of f2 population for fiber and yield related attributes in Gossypium hirsutum. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2022(1). DOI:

Gao, Q., Hu, J., Li, R., Pang, L., Xing, Z., Xu, L., Wang, M., Guo, X., & Wu, G. (2016). Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid cotton fabrics via γ-radiation-induced graft polymerization. Carbohydrate polymers 149, 308-316. DOI:

Hansora, D., Shimpi, N., & Mishra, S. (2015). Performance of hybrid nanostructured conductive cotton materials as wearable devices: an overview of materials, fabrication, properties and applications. Rsc Advances 5, 107716-107770. DOI:

Imran, M. A., Ali, A., Ashfaq, M., Hassan, S., Culas, R., & Ma, C. (2018). Impact of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) practices on cotton production and livelihood of farmers in Punjab, Pakistan. Sustainability 10, 2101. DOI:

Karar, H., Bashir, M. A., Haider, M., Haider, N., Khan, K. A., Ghramh, H. A., Ansari, M. J., Mutlu, Ç., & Alghanem, S. M. (2020). Pest susceptibility, yield and fiber traits of transgenic cotton cultivars in Multan, Pakistan. PloS one 15, e0236340. DOI:

Khalid, M. N., Abdullah, A., Ijaz, Z., Naheed, N., Hamad, A., Sheir, M. A., Shabir, F., Parveen, K., & Khan, M. D. (2021). Application and Potential Use of Advanced Bioinformatics Techniques in Agriculture and Animal Sciences. Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci 9, 237-246. DOI:

Khan, A. W., Moshammer, H. M., & Kundi, M. (2015). Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry. BMJ open 5, e007266. DOI:

Khan, M. I., Shoukat, M. A., Cheema, S. A., Arif, H. N., Niazi, N. K., Azam, M., Bashir, S., Ashraf, I., & Qadri, R. (2020). Use, contamination and exposure of pesticides in Pakistan: a review. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 57.

Kouser, S., & Qaim, M. (2015). Bt cotton, pesticide use and environmental efficiency in Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Economics 66, 66-86. DOI:

Kouser, S., Spielman, D. J., & Qaim, M. (2019). Transgenic cotton and farmers’ health in Pakistan. PloS one 14, e0222617. DOI:

Malik, T. H., & Ahsan, M. Z. (2016). Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects. OCL 23, D606. DOI:

Masood, S., Khaliq, A., Rauf, H., Mahmood, K., Ahmed, I., Hussain, N., Kanwal, S., Faheem, U., & Muhammad, T. (2022). Heat and drought forbearing, upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) variety; RH-668 for cultivation in semi-arid region. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2022(1).

Mohan, K. S., Ravi, K. C., Suresh, P. J., Sumerford, D., & Head, G. P. (2016). Field resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis protein Cry1Ac expressed in Bollgard® hybrid cotton in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), populations in India. Pest Management Science 72, 738-746. DOI:

Munir, M., Bashir, H., Zaghum, M., Aziz, S., Akhtar, S., Ahmad, N., Kanwal, S., Kiran, S., Tipu, A., Liaqat, S., Ahmad, M., Latif, A., Latif, A., Nadeem, M., & Shaukat, S. (2022). Evaluation of cotton mutants for water deficit condition. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2022(1). DOI:

Mudasir, M., Noman, M., Zafar, A., Khalid, M. N., Amjad, I., & Hassan, A. (2021). Genetic Evaluation of Gossypium hirsutum L. for Yield and Fiber Contributing Attributes in Segregating Population. Int. J. Rec. Biotech 9, 1-9.

Noureen, N., Hussain, M., Fatima, S., & Ghazanfar, M. (2016). Cotton mealybug management: a review. Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies 4, 657-663.

RAZZAQ, A., ZAFAR, M. M., ALI, A., HAFEEZ, A., BATOOL, W., SHI, Y., GONG, W., & YUAN, Y. (2021). Cotton germplasm improvement and progress in Pakistan. Journal of Cotton Research 4, 1-14. DOI:

Rehman, A., Jingdong, L., Shahzad, B., Chandio, A. A., Hussain, I., Nabi, G., & Iqbal, M. S. (2015). Economic perspectives of major field crops of Pakistan: An empirical study. Pacific science review b: humanities and social sciences 1, 145-158. DOI:

Saleem, M. F., Sammar Raza, M. A., Ahmad, S., Khan, I. H., & Shahid, A. M. (2016). Understanding and mitigating the impacts of drought stress in cotton-a review. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 53. DOI:

Shabbir, M. S., & Yaqoob, N. (2019). The impact of technological advancement on total factor productivity of cotton: a comparative analysis between Pakistan and India. Journal of Economic Structures 8, 1-16. DOI:

Shahbaz, U., Yu, X., & Naeem, M. A. (2019). Role of Pakistan government institutions in adoption of Bt cotton and benefits associated with adoption. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 29, 1-11. DOI:

Shahzad, K., Mubeen, I., Zhang, M., Zhang, X., Wu, J., & Xing, C. (2022). Progress and perspective on cotton breeding in Pakistan. Journal of Cotton Research 5, 1-17. DOI:

Shahzad, K., Qi, T., Guo, L., Tang, H., Zhang, X., Wang, H., Qiao, X., Zhang, M., Zhang, B., & Feng, J. (2019). Adaptability and stability comparisons of inbred and hybrid cotton in yield and fiber quality traits. Agronomy 9, 516. DOI:

Shuli, F., Jarwar, A. H., Wang, X., Wang, L., & Ma, Q. (2018). Overview of the cotton in Pakistan and its future prospects. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 31, 396. DOI:

Spielman, D. J., Nazli, H., Ma, X., Zambrano, P., & Zaidi, F. (2015). Technological opportunity, regulatory uncertainty, and Bt cotton in Pakistan.

Wei, W., Mushtaq, Z., Ikram, A., Faisal, M., Wan-Li, Z., & Ahmad, M. I. (2020). Estimating the economic viability of cotton growers in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Sage Open 10, 2158244020929310. DOI:

Zhu, M., Shi, Q., He, T., Yi, Z., Ma, Y., Yang, B., Chen, T., & Lee, C. (2019). Self-powered and self-functional cotton sock using piezoelectric and triboelectric hybrid mechanism for healthcare and sports monitoring. ACS nano 13, 1940-1952. DOI:




How to Cite

KHALID, M., HASSAN, U., HANZALA, M., AMJAD, I., & HASSAN, A. (2022). CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS OF COTTON PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN. Bulletin of Biological and Allied Sciences Research, 2022(1), 27.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>